The first area is whether the tasks were interesting and enjoyable at all. Is it simply the actions of an explicitly racist contingent? A. Nicole practiced diligently with her mom. The result that the Twenty Dollar condition is actually lower than the Control condition is undoubtedly a matter of chance (t = 0.58). (p.47). After the debate, students expressed beliefs closer to their debate position than before (Scott, 1957). According to Sternberg's theory, when intimacy and passion are combined the result is _____, which is often the basis for a more lasting relationship. This question is less directly related to the dissonance that was experimentally created for the Ss. >> As long as people are not paid a lot of money or given some other obvious inducement to perform the behavior, they will convince themselves it is enjoyable. A theory of cognitive dissonance. The new edition of Cognitive Dissonance: Re-examining a Pivotal Theory in Psychology contains 12 chapters and three appendices. Cults use all of the following except_______to gain new members. <> In conclusion, people, when persuaded to lie without being given enough justification, will perform a task by convincing themselves of the falsehood, rather than telling a lie. The interview consisted of four questions, on each of which the S was first encouraged to talk about the matter and was then asked to rate his opinion or reaction on an 11-point scale. 51 0 obj /O 49 that the participants who were paid $20 would experience less When members of a cult are trying to enlist a new recruit, they start by asking the recruit to make a small commitment, such as attending a short meeting or helping out at a social function. The participants were asked to carry out series of monotonous tasks that were meant to be boring and nonsensical. The students presumably put some effort into building and defending their arguments. These Ss were hired for twenty dollars to do the same thing. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about. They were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. An unpleasant psychological state often aroused when people hold two conflicting cognition. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Martha doesn't want her young son to touch the heating stove. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of, A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through, People can reduce cognitive dissonance by, forming new cognitions to justify their behavior, Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. /T 679093 ", 3. To achieve consonance, something has to give. It is possible, then, that the results on this question, shown in the third row of figures in Table 1, might reflect dissonance reduction. A rating of how persuasive and convincing the S was in what he said and the way in which he said it. Scott, W. A. /L 680077 To start with, she asks her boyfriend to cook dinner for her. Take it with you wherever you go. If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said. 0000000658 00000 n the majority would administer 450 volts as instructed. Goleman, D. (1991, July 16) New way to battle bias: fight acts, not feelings. In this course, students are required to spend a certain number of hours as subjects (Ss) in experiments. Write to Dr. Dewey at Two derivations from this theory are tested here. Shawn and Tanya start talking after they've ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. GzXfc^+"R89DP{va3'72IKmr(6*k&LCl7pK)rMTvlTx6Gdo-mnsU The neurotransmitter that seems most involved in aggression is_________. Which of the following is not one of the reasons given by the text for interpersonal attraction? {"cdnAssetsUrl":"","site_dot_caption":"","premium_user":false,"premium_set":false,"payreferer":"clone_set","payreferer_set_title":"Psychology Chapter 12","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/psychology-chapter-12-1964384","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA-272909-1","facebook":{"clientId":"363499237066029","version":"v12.0","language":"en_US"}}. In the third element of social identity theory, people use _______ to improve their self-esteem. 109 0 obj <>stream The hour which the S spent working on the repetitive, monotonous tasks was intended to provide, for each S uniformly, an experience about which he would have a somewhat negative opinion. A person who is very low in self-worth is less likely to be affected by the_____. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 72-75. Half of them were offered $1 to do it, and half of them were offered $20. FESTINGER, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance. His data, however did not support this idea. Initially, subjects will be told that they will be participating in a two-hour experiment. If you change your attitudes, then presumably your behavior will change. /Parent 45 0 R In the other two conditions, however, the Ss told someone that these tasks were interesting and enjoyab1e. Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for the findings. The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of, If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the. Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $2. << More surprisingly, if you change a person's behavior, attitudes change to match the behavior. This person has two cognitions which, psychologically, do not fit together: one of these is the knowledge that he believes "X," the other the knowledge that he has publicly stated that he believes "not X." endstream One would consequently expect to observe such opinion change after a person has been forced or induced to say something contrary to his private opinion. This automatic assumption about the student's personality is an example of, The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of other people is called. The importance of this announcement will become clear shortly. However, when she doesn't get time to study, she cheats on her history test. repeatedly turning pegs in a peg board for an hour. 0000013918 00000 n Behaviorists would have predict that a reinforcement 20 times bigger would produce more change. Their data, however, are not included in the analysis. This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University, of which 11 students were disqualified. Specifically, they showed that if a person is forced to improvise a speech supporting a point of view with which he disagrees, his private opinion moves toward the position advocated in the speech. An internet resource developed by Harry's belief is based on. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. Invulnerability, where members of a group feel they can do no wrong, is a characteristic of, Gene keeps Roger's cat while Roger is out of town. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210. KELMAN, H. Attitude change as a function of response restriction Hum. Leon Festinger's 1957 cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we act to reduce the disharmony, or dissonance, of our conflicting feelings. This study showed people are subjected to conformity for the first time scientifically. No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Which of the following is not one of the three things people do to reduce cognitive dissonance? Three Ss (one in the One Dollar and two in the Twenty Dollar condition) refused to take the money and refused to be hired. If the results of our experiment are to be taken as strong corroboration of the theory of cognitive dissonance, this possible alternative explanation must be dealt with. The observed opinion change is greater than for persons who only hear the speech or for persons who read a prepared speech with emphasis solely on execution and manner of delivery The authors of these two studies explain their results mainly in terms of mental rehearsal and thinking up new arguments. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). They present some evidence, which is not altogether conclusive, in support of this explanation. 1959. In 1959, Leon Festinger and Merrill Carlsmith looked to test Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance. show that a person's private opinion will change to reduce dissonance when it conflicts with what they are forced to do, stanford uni students were asked to do simple, boring tasks for an hour and the researchers timed them with a stopwatch and took notes to make it seem as if the task was important, the participants were given either $1 or $20 to tell another student that the task was fun, there was a clear difference of opinion in the follow up interview. Or is there something more nuanced at play? they shifted their attitudes and perceived the task as more enjoyable To reduce the feeling of discomfort about lying, they persuaded themselves they actually enjoyed the experiment. An experiment by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) brought cognitive dissonance theory to the attention of American social psychologists. Festinger and Carlsmith had cleverly set up an opposition between behavioral theory, which was dominant in the 1950s, and Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory. (1984, August) Psychology Today, pp.40-45. task faced a greater degree of dissonance than the ones who were paid $20, so Group B was given introduction by an experimenter, presenting the tasks in an interesting and enjoyable tone. New York: Harper & Row. Let us then see what can be said about the total magnitude of dissonance in a person created by the knowledge that he said "not X" and really believes "X." Eliot Aronson, himself a famous social psychologist and former student of Festinger, called this "the most important experiment in the history of social psychology" ("Social Researcher", 1984). Subjects were subjected to a boring experience and then paid to tell someone that the experience had been interesting and enjoyable. Our identity is in part created by identifying ourselves with the organization or the community for which the sacrifices have been made. Participants in the $1 condition experience greater discomfort and agitation when lying about how fun the task was than do participants in the $20 condition. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Based on experiments by Festinger and Carlsmith, the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors. In evaluating the total magnitude of dissonance one must take account of both dissonances and consonances. He found, rather, that a large reward produced less subsequent opinion change than did a smaller reward. /Type/Page How would a social psychologist describe this situation? Prejudice, s Stereotypes are defined as particular beliefs or assumptions about a human being based on their association with a group (Spielman, 2014, p.225). He then said: The E then took the S into the secretary's office where he had previously waited and where the next S was waiting. Psych Web has over 1,000 pages, so it may be elsewhere on the site. 59 0 obj Prev page|Page top|Chapter Contents|Next page. 3. Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith conducted a study on cognitive dissonance investigating on the cognitive consequences of forced compliance.
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