Analysis. Slavic is a group of Indo-European Languages divided into 3 sub groups ( East Slavic , West Slavic and South Slavic ) . The National Library of Moldova was founded in 1832. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a growing US$5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. The culture of Moldova is influenced primarily by the Romanian origins of its majority population, while also being heavily indebted to the Slavic and minority Gagauz populations. v. t. e. The official state language of Moldova is Romanian which is the native language of 82.2% of the population; it is also spoken as a primary language by other ethnic minorities. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting. [43] During this time there were anti-Semitic riots, leading to an exodus of thousands of Jews to the United States.[44]. [186], According to the last census in Transnistria (October 2015), the population of the region was 475,373, a 14.47% decrease from the figure recorded at the 2004 census. Independence subsequently finalized with the, This page was last edited on 2 March 2023, at 17:53. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (see Moldovenism). Historically Russian was taught in schools as the first foreign language, because of the relationship with the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. [104] The Russian army has a military base and a large ammunition dump in the region. Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. Moldavia finally returned to Ottoman vassalage in 1621. After winning the 1996 presidential elections, on 15 January 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in 198991, became the country's second president (19972001), succeeding Mircea Snegur (19911996). [96] On 6 August 2021, the Natalia Gavrilia-led cabinet was sworn in to office with 61 votes, all from the Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS). Peter Aaron's rule also signified the beginning of Moldavia's Ottoman Empire allegiance, as the ruler was the first to agree to pay tribute to Sultan Mehmed II. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution. [134] Moldova improved its legislation by enacting the Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence, in 2008.[135]. They are natives of Central, Eastern, Southeast, and Northeast Europe as well as Central and North Asia. Moldova's agricultural products include vegetables, fruits, grapes, wine, and grains.[172]. [199] For the 2004 census, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. Colonization brought in numerous Great Russian peasants, and the Russian bureaucracy imported Russian office-holders and professional men; according to the Romanian estimate of 1920, there were about 75,000 (2.9%) Great Russians in the territory, and the Lipovans and Cossacks numbered 59,000 (2.2%); the Little Russians (Ukrainians) came to 254,000 (9.6%). [76] After the Alliance for European Integration lost a no confidence vote, the Pro-European Coalition was formed on 30 May 2013.[77]. [144], The environment of Moldova suffered extreme degradation during the Soviet period, when industrial and agricultural development proceeded without regard for environmental protection. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Moldova, Ukraine, and parts of Azerbaijan and Georgia. Moldovans, sometimes referred to as Moldavians ( Romanian: moldoveni [moldoven], Moldovan Cyrillic: ), is a term used to describe the Romanian-speaking indigenous people of the Republic of Moldova and the largest self-declared ethnic group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population as of 2014) as well as a significant minority The court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties signed by the country.[110]. The sole international air gateway of Moldova is the Chiinu International Airport. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova experienced many invasions in late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, notably by Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars. Dodon, leader of Moldova's main pro-Russian opposition, the Socialist Party, was accused of taking bribes. [64][65] Along with several other Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards independence. In 1946, as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major famine. [18] However, the strip of Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. This article is about the modern state. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years later united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. [86] The Constitutional Court reversed the decision on 15 June, effectively ending the crisis. After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, neutrality, and European Union integration. [193], In 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the name "Romanian", as used in the Declaration of Independence to identify the official language, prevails over the name "Moldovan", given in Article 13 of the Constitution.[194]. The Slavs speak mainly Indo-European Slavic Language. Carpian tribes also inhabited Moldova's territory in the period of classical antiquity. Petru I profited from the end of the Polish-Hungarian union and moved the country closer to the Jagiellon realm, becoming a vassal of king Jogaila of Poland on 26 September 1387. The Moldovans, Romania, Russia and the Politics of Culture , 2000. Carla's Dreams reached the top charts in multiple countries in Europe with the release of their song "Sub Pielea Mea" in 2016. Then Zdob i Zdub again represented Moldova in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest finishing 12th. World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural (ethnic) awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as 300,000 Bessarabians were drafted into the Russian Army formed in 1917; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed. Officially, the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. The independence of the Principality of Moldavia came when Bogdan I, another Vlach voivode from Maramure who had fallen out with the Hungarian king, crossed the Carpathian mountains in 1359 and took control of Moldavia, wresting the region from Hungary. Slavs are Indo-European ethnolinguistic groups in Europe. In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women. [80] Concerns over statewide corruption, the independence of the judiciary system, and the nontransparency of the banking system were expressed. The main transmission channels through which adverse exogenous shocks could impact the Moldovan economy are remittances (also due to potentially returning migrants), external trade, and capital flows. 24 January]1918 and requested the assistance of the French army present in Romania (general Henri Berthelot) and of the Romanian Army. A deep crisis was to follow Alexander l's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II and the accession of Peter Aaron in 1451. Between 2 March and 26 July 1992, the conflict escalated into a military engagement. The Russian strike was targeting a Ukrainian dam on the Nistru river that runs through Moldova and Ukraine. Montenegro Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. Since 2004, playing numbers at all levels have more than doubled to 3,200. [216], Public expenditure on health was 4.2% of the GDP and private expenditure on health 3.2%. This makes for a total of 1,682 localities in Moldova, two of which are uninhabited.[137]. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}47N 29E / 47N 29E / 47; 29. The Moldovan language (or dialect) differs only . Main risks to the near-term outlook relate to serious vulnerabilities and governance issues in the banking sector, policy slippages in the run up to the elections, intensification of geopolitical tensions in the region, and a further slowdown in activity in main trading partners. dollars. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible SlavicVlach vassal tribe of Halych, were also present in much of the region's territory. Rugby union is popular as well. The Moldovan Intelligence and Security Service has estimated that 600,000 to one million Moldovan citizens (almost 25% of the population) are working abroad. Combaterea coruptiei, stabilitatea economica si intarirea institutiilor, singura cale catre succes", "Women Victims from Moldova From 1991 through 2008", "Country Comparison: Total Fertility Rate", "Biroul Naional de Statistic Comunicate de pres - Situaia copiilor n Republica Moldova", "Human Development Report 2009 Moldova", "As Health System Declined, TB Increased", "Former Soviet Nations, China Face High MDR-TB Prevalence, Study Says", "Understanding Migration, Emigration from Moldova", Moldovan Red Wines: The Best Red Wine on the Planet You Have Never Heard Of, "How This Tiny European Country Got the World's Worst Drinking Problem", "Moldova Declares Western Christmas Day Official Holiday", "Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans - FOREIGNERS IN UK", "Europe's poor relations show richness of spirit; Mark Souster visits Moldova and discovers a wealth of ambition at all levels in one of the game's new frontiers", S.Res.148 - A resolution to express the sense of the Senate that the United States should support the right to self-determination of the people of the Republic of Moldavia and northern Bucovina, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Assemble parlementaire de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopration Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS,, Romanian-speaking countries and territories, Russian-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, States and territories established in 1991, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Romanian-language sources (ro), Articles with dead external links from March 2021, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles needing additional references from March 2022, All articles needing additional references, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2022, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2022, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with incomplete citations from December 2022, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from October 2016, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Date of proclamation. It occupies an area of 92,046 square miles and has a population of slightly more than 20 million people. [citation needed] In the winter of 19911992, clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Guards Army, and the Moldovan police. During this time, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, beginning in the 15th century, by the Ottoman Turks. Slavic and other cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture by adopting and maintaining some of the traditions of its neighbours and of . Moldova has a climate which is moderately continental; its proximity to the Black Sea leads to the climate being mildly cold in the autumn and winter and relatively cool in the spring and summer.[138]. In addition, 7.0% of the population declared themselves Romanians, amid the controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova. Nevertheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on 4 March 2016, that this constitutional change adopted in 2000 regarding the presidential election was unconstitutional,[111] thus reverting the election method of the president to a two-round system direct election. [217] There are about 264 physicians per 100,000 people. The band SunStroke Project with Olia Tira represented the country in the 2010 Eurovision Song Contest with their hit song "Run Away". In April 2010, Romania offered Moldova development aid worth of 100 million while the number of scholarships for Moldovan students doubled to 5,000. In 2013 more than 60% of schoolchildren took it as their first foreign language. Romania's break with communism came following a violent uprising in 1989, which culminated in the execution death of the . The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu, Dimitrie Cantemir[g] and Ion Neculce. Moldova received official recognition on 25 December. In the 11th century, a Viking by the name of Rodfos was possibly killed in the area by the Blakumen who betrayed him. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. On 30 October 1992, Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits. In February, Moldova, a country of 3.5 million squeezed between Ukraine and Romania, held an inconclusive parliamentary election. In 2010, Oldowan flint tools were discovered at Bayraki that are 800,0001.2 million years old. [214] The maternal mortality rate was 41 deaths/100,000 live births (in 2010)[215] and the infant mortality rate was 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births (in 2015). The urbanization rate was 69.9%. Flights were banned to Spain, Italy, France, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Germany, Ireland, the U.K., Poland, Portugal and Romania. The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was 41.5C (106.7F) on 21 July 2007 in Camenca. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime Minister. Mihai Eminescu, a late Romantic poet, and Ion Creang, a writer, are the most influential Romanian language artists, considered national writers both in Romania and Moldova. A strong Western European influence in Moldovan literature and arts was prevalent in the 19th century. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. Cum a evoluat economia Republicii Moldova n ultimii 20 de ani. [191][192] The Constitution of 1994 stated that the national language of the Republic of Moldova was Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet. [132], According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, released in April 2011, "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces. Through cable, Moldovan viewers can receive a large number of Russian channels, a few Romanian channels, and several Russian language versions of international channels in addition to several local channels. The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by 47.3% in the first quarter of 2008 against the last year and exceeded 2.89 million. On 23 December 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995, the latter was constituted. Total recorded adult alcohol consumption is approximately evenly split between spirits, beer and wine. . In a country with a population of 3.5 million, of which 1 million are abroad, there are more than 700,000 pensioners. Since 1996, the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of La Francophonie. 8b/2013 i 41b/2013)", "Population Census 2004: Population by main nationalities, mother tongue and language usually spoken", National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova, "Structure of population by language usually used for communication and age groups on 2014 census", "English the most preferred foreign language among Moldovan students", "DN Carnevale - A Context-Grounded Approach to Religious Freedom: The Case of Orthodoxy in the Moldovan Republic", "2020 Report on International Religious Freedom: Moldova", "Bologna Process Template for National Reports: 20052007 (Moldova)", "Romnia ofer tinerilor moldoveni 5.000 de burse n licee i universiti", "Presedintele Klaus Iohannis l-a primit, la Suceava, pe Nicolae Timofti: "Republica Moldova isi poate implini destinul doar in Uniunea Europeana. Among these were many Bessarabians, such as Alexandru Donici, Alexandru Hjdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Costache Negruzzi, Alecu Russo, Constantin Stere. The new coalition and Igor Dodon argued that the president may call snap elections after consulting the parliament but is not obliged to do so. [175], On 6 June 2012, the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators. Moldova Formerly known as Bessarabia, this region was an integral part of the Romanian principality of Moldavia until 1812, when it was ceded to Russia by its suzerain, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
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